Commodore 16

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Commodore 16
Commodore 16
Type: Home Computer
Producer: Commodore
Price: 99 US$
Released: 1984
Discontinued: 1985
Processor: MOS 7501/8501 @ 0,885/1,76 MHz
Memory: 16 KByte, upgradeable until 64 KByte
OS: BASIC 3.5
Info: Part of the Commodore-264 series

The Commodore 16 (short for: C16) is a Commodore home computer, which was the follower of the VIC-20. It was produced in the years 1984-85. The C16, C116 and Plus/4 are part of the Commodore-264 series. The selling price was often 99 US$. The case looks likely the C64, but colored in black. The production of C16 worldwide are over 1.266.000. In Argentina produced the computer company Drean C16 under Commodore licence, however the company Sigma in Mexico.

The OS is a advanced version of BASIC (version 3.5). The software isn't compatible to the C64. The devices datasette 1531, joysticks and the diskdrive 1551 can be only connected (without adapters) to the Commodore-264 series.


Contents

[edit] Construction

[edit] Right side

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Commodore 16 right side
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Commodore 16 power supply unit
  • Two joystick connectors (Joy1 and 2, round mini-DIN, 8-pins, I) to connect a joystick
  • Reset button
  • On/Off switch
  • Power connector (power; 2 pins) for the power supply unit


[edit] Rear side

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Commodore 16 backside


[edit] Mainboard

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C16 board Assy No. 250443, PCB No. 251789-O I REV.A, buildyear 1984
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244-page handbook with circuit diagram
  • CPU: MOS 7501 or 8501 with 0.885/1.76MHz Clock frequency (controlled by TED) - average approx. 1,1 MHz.
  • Memory: 16 KByte RAM, with 12277 free usable under BASIC, expandable to 64 KByte.
  • ROM: 32 KByte in total, diveded into:
    • CBM BASIC V3.5 (16 KByte) ($8000-$BFFF; 32768-49151)
    • KERNAL (14 KByte) ($D800-$FFF9; 55296-65529)
    • Charset (2 KByte) ($D000-$D7FF; 53248-55295)
  • Graphics: TED 8360
    • Display in text mode (either uppercase characters & block graphics or upper- & lowercase characters) 40 (rows) * 25 (columns) characters or in graphic mode 320*200 Pixel or 160*200 pixel. Also display graphics with 5 rows of text at 320*160 or 160*160 pixel, additional Shapes in BASIC
    • Colors: 121 (15 colors in 8 shades and black)
  • Sound: TED 8360 is used as well for sound generation and can create 2 independend voices with tones or sound effects covering 4 octaves (approx. 28 tones without intermediate tones).
  • Keyboard: 66 keys (QWERTY), with multi-assignments, function keys are already predefined.
  • Other:
    • Dimensions: 407mm * 204mm * 77mm
    • Weight:
    • Power supply: 9V DC via external power supply unit.
    • Power consumption: ?W



[edit] Block diagram

C16 Blockschaltbild.gif


[edit] Memory allocation

 Memory adresses          | Description
Hexadecimal | Decimal     |
$0000-$07FF | 00000-02047 | Zero page, System ram
$0800-$0C00 | 02048-03071 | Color ram
$0C01-$1000 | 03072-04095 | Video ram
$1000-$3FFF | 04096-06143 | BASIC-RAM (if using graphics this area will shrink!)
$1800-$1BFF | 06144-07167 | Luminance (if using graphics)
$1C00-$1FFF | 07168-08191 | Color table (if using graphics)
$2000-$3FFF | 08192-16383 | Video ram for graphics (if using graphics)
$4000-$7FFF | 16384-32767 | free (for memory extensions)
$8000-$BFFF | 32768-49151 | BASIC V3.5
$C000-$CFFF | 49152-53247 | free for BASIC extensions
$D000-$D7FF | 53248-55295 | Char set
$D800-$FBFF | 55296-64511 | KERNAL
$FC00-$FCFF | 64512-64767 | ROM banking routines
$FD00-$FEFF | 64768-65279 | I/O adresses
$FF81-$FFF9 | 65409-65529 | KERNAL
$FFFA-$FFFB | 65530-65531 | NMI vector
$FFFC-$FFFD | 65532-65533 | RES vector
$FFFE-$FFFF | 65534-65535 | IRQ-Vektor

[edit] Deviations of color table and control characters

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The C16 color spectrum (121 colors)
15 colors with 8 shades + black

The commodore colour table deviates at the TED after the 9th color (brown):

Color       | Key com-   | Color value  | In program:  | Or by PRINT "control character"
            | bination   | für POKE     | PRINT CHR$(X) | (in quotes!)  
yellow-green| <C=>+<3>   | 090          | 150           | inverse graphic-X  
Pink        | <C=>+<4>   | 107          | 152           | inverse ring 
Blue-green  | <C=>+<5>   | 092          | 151           | inverse clubs
Light blue  | <C=>+<6>   | 109          | 153           | inv. vline right    
Dark blue   | <C=>+<7>   | 046          | 154           | inverse check  
Light green | <C=>+<8>   | 095          | 155           | inverse clubs

Hint: There are some new control characters at the C16:

PRINTCHR$(027) Escape key
PRINTCHR$(130) Text flashing on
PRINTCHR$(131) Text flashing off
PRINTCHR$(140) Help key


[edit] Function Keys

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Start screen

The C16 function keys are normally:

An overview or a modify of the function keys follows through the BASIC-command KEY in direct mode or in programs. After a reset or a reboot are the normally function key configuration active.


[edit] Purchased parts package

In Germany the C16 was first available in a single package and was later sold in a bundle Commodore Computer-Lernkurs BASIC-Programmiersprache.

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Commodore 16 in original box (German/France)

The purchased parts of a C16 package are (1984):

[edit] Accesories

[edit] Cartridges

  • Commodore Jack Attack
  • Commodore Pirate Adventure
  • Commodore Viduzzles
  • Commodore Atomic Mission
  • Commodore Strange Odyssey
  • Commodore Pirate Adventure
  • Commodore C-16 Tutor
  • Commodore Logo
  • Commodore Diagnostic Test (TED Diagnostic Rev 1.5)
  • Commodore Script/Plus
  • Commodore Financial Advisor

[edit] Memory extensions

For the C16/116 the following memory expansions were available:

  • 16K Expansion (Kingsoft)
  • 64K Extension (ak-tronics)
  • 64K RAM (Kingsoft)
  • 64K RAM memory expansion (Golden Games)
  • 64K cartridgel (LINDY)
  • DELA C16 memory expansion 64K
  • REX Datentechnik (9305) 64K
  • Commodore 16K RAM pack cartridge for the expansion port (Ram Electronics Ltd.)
  • 64K RAM (Stonechip Electronics)
  • Jureks 64K Memory Expansion

[edit] Other cards

[edit] Adaptors

  • Joystick adaptor: To connect common joysticks with the 9-pin subd connectors there were adaptors resp. adaptor cables available to connect these joysticks to the 8-pin, round mini-DIN connectors of the C16/116 and Plus/4.
  • Datasetten adaptor: To connect datasette drives with the usual 12-pin connector there were suitable adaptors resp. adaptor cables to connect them to the 7-pin, round mini-DIN connector at the C16/116 and Plus/4.


[edit] Links

WP-W11.png 16 Wikipedia: Commodore 16
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